From Roaming Bands of Hunters and Gatherers to A Digital Society; Solidarity

by Tuğçe Demirsöz

Nowadays our modern world is struggling to live up to the vision of its fundamental values. Unfortunately, we wake up every day with news that will make us even more disappointed with humanism.We must try to recall certain principles established after the Second World War in order to embrace integration in the world.This aspect is worth taking a look at, “benefit ordinary people and society as a whole”.Considering these outlooks as a youngster in one of the most conflicts in the world, you can emphasize how much we would like to participate organizations such as Fulbright Scheme, Erasmus and Erasmus + platforms that contribute international solidarity.

As mentioned in the previous ”embracing integration in the world” means solidarity.Scheler defines solidarity as the reciprocal relationship between the whole and its parts. This definition is analyzed to yield the various types of relationships between the whole and its parts. Personalistic solidarity represents the reciprocal relationship between the whole and its parts, solidarity by interests represents the domination of the whole by its parts, organic solidarity represents the domination of the parts by the whole, and solidarity by contagion represents the absence of any relationship between the whole and the parts.Remarkably we can say define solidarity various types.

Firstly let’s consider the subject in philosophical point of views.According to Émile Durkheim, the types of social solidarity correlate with types of society. Durkheim introduced the terms mechanical and organic solidarity. In a society exhibiting mechanical solidarity, its cohesion and integration come from the homogeneity of individuals—people feel connected through similar work, educational and religious training, and lifestyle. Mechanical solidarity normally operates in traditional and small-scale societies. Organic solidarity comes from the interdependence that arises from specialization of work and the complementarities between people—a development which occurs in “modern” and “industrial” societies.By contrast of this, we, of course, looking something more than just mechanical or organic solidarity for our purpose for international solidarity in 2018.

 On the other hand Peter Kropotkin in his most famous book, Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution (1902),

 In his introduction to the book, Kropotkin wrote:

 “The number and importance of mutual-aid institutions which were developed by the creative genius of the savage and half-savage masses, during the earliest clan-period of mankind and still more during the next village-community period, and the immense influence for the development of mankind”

 ”I have tried to indicate in brief the immense importance which the mutual-support instincts, inherited by mankind from its extremely long evolution, play even now in our modern society, which is supposed to rest upon the principle “every one for himself, and the State for all,” but which it has never succeeded, nor will succeed in realizing”

I would like to remark the words of ”mutual-aid institutions which were developed by the creative genius of the savage and half-savage masses”, even then in our premature civilization, humankind succeeded something incredible for its time and benefited  ”mutual-aid institutions” maybe even they survived from extreme conditions because they stood together.This approach took us to this decade.We still continue our evolution as humankind, solidarity is so to speak ”carved in our DNA” as mammals living in the flocks.

One thing that is clearly evident is that human beings have consistently developed new forms of solidarity as we have evolved from roaming bands of hunters and gatherers to a digital society with swiftly eroding national borders.In the light of international relations, an increasing number of youngsters agree that the ‘old international order’ is insufficient for dealing with the current threats to human survival.

Solidarity has numerous definitions with this in mind, our ‘solidarity’ involves having a learning experience about your own identity as well as the identities of the people you are visiting as a youngster.We should be always at the cognitive state of the philosophy of solidarity we mentioned above, we should be inspired then our actions can be more productive.

A world consists of societies, a society consists of groups, and a group consists of individuals. People who share common purposes or goals would form a group.We should give intellectual feedbacks in every activity to raise common interests. Common purposes or goals create solidarity – the sense of ”we-ness” in a group. As the forms of solidarity, attraction, loyalty, identification, and association exists in a group. We can help to build bridges between cultures and encourage to connect more with participants.Our motivation should be improving the common empathy, acceptance, and solidarity between cultures with our all endeavor.Working for the promotion of understanding the intercultural differences and eliminating prejudices and stereotypes which hinder mutual tolerance.Here are some values of what solidarity involves and you can keep in mind  and inspire during projects like this;

  • Seeing the world differently
  • Equality
  • Ongoing relationships
  • Dependability
  • Accompaniment
  • Empowerment
  • Charity
  • Relationships
  • Mutuality
  • Broad participation
  • Asking why there are the unjust social conditions we see
  • Good relations with everyone
  • Sharing who you are with those you visit
  • Emphaty for those you visit
  • Learning about yourself as well as those you visit
  • Thinking of the global common good
  • Becoming “in-between” or “bridge” people
  • Reflection before, during and after the solidarity experience
  • Sharing your experience after returning
  • Engaging in solidarity actions regularly after returning
  • Reflecting on the experience to help you think about how to use your skills and education
  • Sharing in the lives of the people, seeing how they live

Achieving global solidarity may sound far from being true. With all the chaos happening around the world nowadays, this idea might be next to impossible for many. If all countries will respect each other despite differences in culture, beliefs, religion and other factors, the world is one step ahead towards this goal. But, is it really possible? Yes, in the very long term, maybe even in evolutionary timescales though, possible… All things considered it seems reasonable to assume that, this change will start within oneself.

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